March 16, 2016


2016 update

Read Time 8 minutes

Yes, I know, I haven’t written a blog post since ‘nam. Unfortunately (for anyone looking to read a new one) I’m not about to start now. But…I do have two things to offer in the place of treatises on cholesterol (yes, I know, I didn’t finish the Straight Dope series), insulin resistance, hypothyroidism, and a dozen other topics (not including “what I eat, circa Q12016”): first, a series of updates (most of you will want to skip this section if you’re only here for the hardcore science talk); second, a few recent podcasts I’ve done.

Update 1: Work, then

I am no longer at NuSI. I left NuSI at the end of 2015 after four great, albeit very challenging, years. The work we started is still going on and in the following years I look forward to seeing the published research as it becomes available to the public (which I am now a part of).

Update 2: Work, now

Today I am working Peter-part-time (30-35 hours/week) on my medical practice, which is located in San Diego and NYC. It’s a very small practice and sort of referral only. It is not a “ketogenic” practice whatever that means (though people seem to ask me that). The focus is longevity and healthspan, for which nutrition is but one of eight components. I love this work more than I can describe, but I have no plans to scale this practice. For now I’m more content to build a few Ferrari’s a year than a thousand Toyota’s. Nothing against scalable, mass-produced reliable cars, but I’m obsessed with perfection, and I can’t perfect much more than a small handful of patients at a time.

The other half of my time is spent working on things I’m not ready to talk about publicly yet, but they are very much related to my interests expressed in the practice.

Lastly, I am (slowly) working on turning my 10,000 word longevity manifesto (circa 2014) into a book. No, I’m not willing to share the manifesto, but I hope it will be worth the wait when/if the book ever comes out.

Update 3: Exercise

Because I get asked a lot on the blog and through social medial…here goes:

I hung up the bike in January 2015 (from a competitive standpoint). I simply could not travel 140 days a year (which I did last year), work 60-80 hours/week, spend time with my family, and be a quasi-serious wannabe time-trialist. And if I could, I don’t think I wanted to. So the past year marks a first, since the age of 13—it’s the first year I have not competed in something. It felt horrible for a few months, but I’m at peace with the fact that I can’t FTP at more than 4 watts/kg and probably never will again (especially since I think it was actually shortening my lifespan, not lengthening it). I will ride socially a couple of times per month, and find the experience fun and humbling simultaneously. I’m swimming Master’s zero to three times per week, depending on my travel (on my two weeks/month in NYC, it’s zero; in SD it’s 2-3). To fill the some of the endorphin void I’ve take up bootcamps—Barry’s in NYC and OTF in San Diego. Lastly, I’ve re-discovered my obsession with heavy squats and deadlifts. So total exercise volume is low-ish by my historical standards varying between 8 and 12 hours/week with nothing constituting “training” except for squats and deadlifts.

Because I know someone will ask, here is my favorite squat/deadlift set: after a thorough warmup of 7-10 sets ascending in weight, the main set is 5 sets of 5 reps, followed by 4 sets of 10 reps, following by 3 sets of 20 reps. Pat Jak introduced me to this set. Another cool variation, which I did yesterday, is ascending sets of 5 reps until failure (i.e., keep increasing the weight until you can’t get 5 reps), then dropping down to a “test” weight (I use 315 on deadlift and 275 on squat) and going to failure. Then, drop to a second, lighter “test” weight (I used 275 on deadlift and 225 on squat) and go to failure once more. Failure occurs when form breaks, not when you fall under the bar and the goal is increase the reps of those test sets each week.

I don’t possess the vocabulary to explain what this does to my glycogen reserves.

Do not—repeat—do not do this if you don’t know how to squat and deadlift perfectly. If you’re looking for an education, I can’t recommend Mark Rippetoe enough. His book, Starting Strength, is a bible for anyone who wants to correctly lift heavy weights. I also plan to take his 3-day course for a little tune up. I’ve been doing these exercises since I was about 15, and was fortunate to be coached by wonderful people, but you can’t be too perfect in these movements.

Update 4: Displacement

People who meet me often assume I’m uber-competitive. Actually, I’m not and I don’t think I ever have been. I’m obsessed with mastery, though, yet I consider that very inward. Swimming and cycling were amazing ways to scratch that itch and so was surgery, mathematics, and virtually everything I’ve ever done. So in another effort to fill that mastery void, now that I’m no longer training hard enough to master anything, I’ve been putting more time into another passion—auto racing.

I could write three or four blogposts about this obsession! Last year I managed 9 full days on the track (Laguna Seca and Buttonwillow, above in spec E30) and this year will probably be the same, but the game-changer is my simulator. Using iracing software and a professional simulator built my Mike Wagner (see pic, below, including my shrine to Ayrton Senna) which is the most realistic sim out there, I can actually spend 60-90 minutes per week in the sim and continue to fine tune every detail of the technique necessary to drive a car at its technical limit. The best part (besides hydraulic pedals)? I can practice with my coach, Thomas Merrill (that hyperlink is to a cool test drive he did in a 458), virtually, for hours on end. I’ve never done anything that requires so much concentration and through which I lose all sense of time. Sometimes I tell my wife I’ll be “simming” for 45 minutes only to have her come out and tell me it’s been almost 2 hours. Another added benefit is that I get to teach my kids about driving while they sit on my lap. Fun for the whole family, really. Except my wife, although she has learned to fly through the corkscrew at Laguna in a Miata. I initially planned to put the sim in our bedroom, but that idea was vetoed in favor of the garage. Better than nothing, but I don’t see why the bedroom was such a bad idea.

On the track, my best blooper so far was an amazing failure of metallurgy going into turn 2 at Buttonwillow. Admittedly I tried to cheat and shift from 4 to 2, instead of 4 to 3 to 2, but still… c’mon…


Update 5: Family

Speaking of family, and since I do get asked (thank you very much), my family is doing great and especially happy to see me under much, much less stress than when I was a full-time fundraiser. And as far as kiddos go, it’s still amazing to think there was a day when I didn’t want them (in the abstract, not my actual kids). So glad I was talked into it. The little guy is, officially, a monster. At his 18 month check-up he was 99th percentile in height and 91st in weight. Probably not going to be a great jockey. Big sis adores him and hasn’t (yet) got sick of him. She plays drums like it’s her job and he dances like it’s his.

Update 6: What I eat (the only update you care about…)

In 2015 I did a 6 month experiment of exactly one meal per day (23 hours of fasting, then ~1 hour of eating at dinner). Very interesting. I’m sure I discuss it in at least one of the podcasts, below. These days I’m eating about as freely as I have in 7 years. I’m still carb-restricted by the standards of most Americans, but nowhere near the ketogenic lines of 2011, 2012, and 2013. I almost always skip breakfast, and lunch is usually a salad (“in a bowl larger than my head,” if possible). Dinner is usually a serving of meat with more salad and veggies. I’m more liberal on fruit and even occasionally rice or potatoes. Also, in moments of weakness I sometimes lean into my kid’s crappy food.

The biggest “news” on my eating front is that I now wear a 24-hour continuous glucose monitor (CGM) 24/7. This was the result of one of the most fortuitous flights of my life. In the fall of 2015 I was flying to NYC and half way through the flight, needing a short break from work, I went to one of my favorite watch sites. The fellow next to me made a comment—clearly he was part of the cognoscenti—and we got ultra-deep into watch idiotness. After a while I asked him what he did only to find out he was the CEO of Dexcom, the company that makes the best CGM device on the market. Fast forward a week and Kevin has introduced me to his amazing team (Christy Pospisil is awesome!) and I’m hooked. CGM is a game-changer and it does warrant more discussion than I can provide now. The insights have been staggering. I’m pretty obsessed with it (shocker, yes) and I aim to keep my 14-day running glucose around 90 mg/dL with spot-check standard deviation less than 10 mg/dL. By keeping average glucose low and glucose variability low, I can reasonably assume my insulin AUC (area under curve) is low.

Below is a printout of my last 14 days. As you can see my measured average glucose was 92 mg/dL, which imputes an A1C of 4.8%. At some point I may write about the dozen insights gleaned from CGM (and I think I mention a few in the podcasts), but here’s one: measured A1C is probably directionally valuable (you know, the difference between, say, 5% and 9%), but that’s about it. If your RBC (red blood cells) live longer than 90 days—mine live much longer since I have beta thal trait—your A1C will artificially reflect a higher average glucose. Conversely, if your RBC are large, the opposite occurs. (For those wondering, MCV, which is part of a standard CBC, shows you RBC size).

My A1C in standard blood tests routinely measures 5.5% to 6.0% (courtesy of my tiny RBCs), which poses a problem when applying for life insurance (prediabetic is defined as 5.7% to 6.4%). But with CGM, which is calibrated 2-3 times daily, my imputed A1C, which is much more reliable, varies from 4.6 to 4.9%. Big difference, huh? As an aside, I can’t talk about my beta-thal without hearing my med school roommate, Matt McCormack referring to them as “shite for blood” in the best Scottish accent ever. As if it’s not bad enough having an artificially high A1C… you gotta have shite for blood.

And that’s the least amazing part of CGM. I’m not sure I’m at liberty to discuss the next generation of CGM. Admittedly, not too many people want to wear the device I wear, but in two years, well, that’s when it will get amazing.

And that’s just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to why this device is adding insights and actionable data at a geometric rate. In two years this device will evolve into something everyone can wear.


And lastly…

Ok, I can’t think of any other updates so with that below are three podcasts I’ve done in the past 3 or 4 months. By some coincidence all of them have gone live in the past week, which is what prompted me to do this post-that-is-not-really-a-post.

Here they are in the order they were recorded.

  1. Rhonda Patrick and I spoke in Fall 2015. Here is the link to the video, which she nicely annotates. I believe this is also available on iTunes.
  2. Ken Ford and I spoke in January of this year. I was honored to be the first speaker in IHMC’s STEM series. Here is the link.
  3. Chris Kresser and I spoke in February of this year. We planned (before the talk) to discuss lipoproteins, but I don’t recall doing so. Here is the link.

I hope these three podcasts—all of which were really fun discussions—keep you occupied for a while. I have not listened to them, but my recollection is that there will be overlap between them, especially the latter two.

I’ve been asked a lot in the past few months to do other podcasts but I’ve politely declined, noting that I’m a bit podcasted out. I’m sure the energy will return next year, assuming I have something to say.

Photo by Jeff Cooper on Unsplash

Disclaimer: This blog is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this blog or materials linked from this blog is at the user's own risk. The content of this blog is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard, or delay in obtaining, medical advice for any medical condition they may have, and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions.


  1. Hi Dr. Attia,
    You mentioned that you enjoy discussing selective mTORC1 inhibitors and rapalogs. So just wondering if you know of any way other than eyedrops for getting trehalose past the trehalase G. I. tract degradation so it has a chance to do its autophagic mitochondrial magic instead of just ending up as glucose ? i suppose injecting it intravenously would work too, but for daily doses that won’t work long term Apparently trehalose makes wonderful moisturising eyedrops too.

  2. Hello! Since you’re into racing now, have you seen Adam Corolla’s documentary on Paul Newman’s racing career? It’s amazing. Newman was outracing young whipper snappers at the age of 82yo. Please check it out. I must note, I’m not affiliated w Corolla or any of his enterprises. I’m just a fan of Paul Newman and I know any racing fan would be a fan of this documentary. I hope you enjoy. And I’m really looking forward to your book.

    • Yes, and it is fantastic. Newman was so impressive in this regard. The performance at Le Mans was from another world, given how late he came to the sport. Really inspiring to someone like me who can never be a Senna…

  3. Any recommendations for dosing on the phosphatidyl serine? And is it cycled, used as needed, or every day?

    Thanks for the post!

  4. As a 56 year old, mother of two, who has been a type 1 diabetic for 35 years, I know the problems too much or too little insulin can cause. I have used the Dexcom CGMS for about 5 years, it is the best thing that has happened to diabetes management since I was diagnosed in 1981. Since I also use the Omnipod, insulin pump, my blood sugars and insulin usage can be downloaded and analyzed to understand how my metabolism changes from day to day, week to week and month to month. There can be a 25% swing in insulin usage without any explanation. Not sure why this happens, cannot blame this swing on excess exercise or too many carbs. What I have learned in the last 35 years is that exercise is the key to using insulin effectively and weight is controlled by what we eat. You cannot exercise away bad nutrition!

  5. Hello Peter,

    I have been soaking up The Art and Science… along with others, as well as watching various presentations. Not going for gratuitous flattery here, nor casting aspersions upon the many other wonderful presenters I’ve watched – but my husband, my mother and I have been especially enjoying yours. Knowing ‘why’ is important to me, but with not much more than year 12 Biology under my belt, I appreciate your clear explanations of the various mechanisms involved.

    I won’t bore you with my history, suffice to say that at 40 I find myself at some 115kh. I had hit 135, and through very low fat dieting reduced this – but I was extremely hungry, irritable and didn’t feel 100%. I’ve fallen into the Metabolic Syndrome area for some 15 years now thanks to persistently low HDL, high TG and waist circumference, with fasting glucose only ever just off being diagnosed as diabetic.

    I know I need to turn this around, I know I need to lose weight – and I have in fact just completed my first week of moving in to a state of nutritional ketosis. What I find interesting, and what watching your interview with the Diet Doctor just brought home – is that all of a sudden I am not focussed on the weight loss and the diabetes et al risk reduction. Why? Because I am utterly blown away with the vastly increased feeling of mental acuity! Peter, I’d been frightened I was heading for early dementia or Alzheimer’s – I’ve been foggy and tired and had a frequent feeling of being ‘unable to find my words’ – I’ve felt dumber, dimmer, and had been having trouble following even quite simple conversations at times, particularly when stressed or even more tired than normal. Cut my carb intake to under 20gms, kept my protein moderate, added more fat in a week than I think I have eaten in the past decade – and I feel extraordinary, I feel like ‘me’ again – so much so, that I said to my husband that I couldn’t care less if I didn’t lose another gram if I could feel as sharp as this. This N of 1 likes it, she likes it a lot! 😉

    It’s inadequate, I know, but thank you to you and to all the others talking about this, explaining, researching and asking for further research, listening. I feel on the cusp of an enormous life change – I feel that I’m going to have my life back – a fulfilling, active, enjoyable life that I thought was lost to me. I don’t know what an accountant from Australia could possibly do, but I feel a burning urge to ‘help’ in some way… and I love that I have the energy to even think that! Thank you again.


  6. Peter, in the spirit of a recent Tim Ferris podcast on the art and science of learning anything faster, what might your recommendation be for a practical text or other resource on the fundamentals of biochemistry? (Of course, your blog is a great start!)

  7. “The TSC1- and TSC2-encoded proteins modulate cell function via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, and are key factors in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation.” … Does Rapamycin disrupt cell proliferation through obstruction or through annihilation? Why do they see improved cognition and increased white matter? Most studies show lifelong treatment as necessary. “mTORC1 pathway disruption ameliorates brain inflammation following stroke via a shift in microglia phenotype from M1 type to M2 type”, “Macrophage mTORC1 disruption reduces inflammation and insulin resistance in obese mice”. I am hopefully not the only person interested in a “Attia Academy” discourse on Rapamycin. Kind Regards.

  8. Hi Peter,

    Absolutely loving your podcast interviews! You were referenced in a podcast I was listening to some weeks back and I am really glad I tracked down some of your interviews.

    You have a great knack of taking complex ideas and making them more digestible – no pun intended – especially for those not coming from a science background.

    Would love to hear some more thoughts on MTHFR and what this really means for those with the gene mutation.

    Keep up the great work.

  9. Wow. How do you maintain your weight/bodymass? Skip breakfast, a big salad for lunch and some meat and veggies for dinner. I’m doing LCHF and can’t keep my weight up.

    • A belated comment … if you easily lose weight you may be an ectomorph like me. I eat 3 times/day when not exercising or 5-6 times/day when I am. I’ve never counted calories because I’ve never gained significant weight even if I stuff myself … although I cease to be hungry after a moderate-sized meal whereas some people seem to keep eating for longer.

      On this food intake, I just about maintain my weight of roughly 63 kg. I weigh about the same as when I was 18 (I’m now 63). I’ve been trying to gain muscle weight but the gain has been limited even with quite a lot of heavy lifting.


  10. Re: Easter Island Podcast
    if a horse is eating, is like…if a Nav is eating.
    if a horse is hungry, is like if a Nav is eating.
    if a horse……happy; is like if a Nav happy
    whole lotta Nav in that podcast 😉

  11. Peter – I’ve searched around PubMed for evidence that glutamine post weight training actually has an effect, but have found little evidence if any to date – which supports what many bodybuilders profess (that it doesn’t have any effect). Do you take it based on some more recent evidence or do you recall seeing studies which support it? Thank you kindly.

    • No, I think the evidence points to leucine as the main driver. The other BCAA, valine and isoleucine, and perhaps glutamte, don’t seem as directly relevant. However, they may allow for more “leucine sparing” for the most important role—mTORC1 activation.

  12. Peter,
    A quick, nonetheless heartfelt, thank you for the extremely generous sharing of your knowledge and ongoing experience. It is so difficult to find a clear, intelligent, passionate, sober and considered voice (with a sense of humour!) among the din. Deeply grateful for your work, and inspired by your sincerity & generosity.

  13. Hi Peter,

    I liked your response above with the metaphor of the hammer.

    If targeting a specific goal which seems, from my reading, to be a variable by-product of very low carb induced insulin reduction, would you recommend starting with a hammer, or start by just putting some pressure on the nail manually by slowly working down the level of carbs (+ increasing fat accordingly) to see if the nail moves a bit at any point?

    Specifically I am interested in it from a borderline diastolic BP perspective, being “otherwise healthy” and at (or marginally below) my desired weight.


  14. As I mentioned in one of my other comments, I’ve recently started experimenting with ketosis given my metabolic-syndrome symptoms and have been thoroughly enjoying your blogs. Thanks.

    One question: In your personal journey you mention:
    Two things jump out at you, I’m sure: I eat virtually all of my calories in the form of fat and my total caloric intake has actually gone up by about 50%. Let me reiterate, I don’t exercise any more today than I did 2 years ago. In fact, if anything, I probably exercise a bit less (i.e., down from 3-4 hours per day to 2 to 2.5 hours per day).

    Since you did not explicitly address the (new, i.e., 2011) energy budget (and compare it to the old, i.e., 2009, energy budget), (a) is it that your new (2011) basal metabolic rate is much higher than in 2009? (b) are ketone bodies excreted in urine significant?

  15. Hi Peter, thanks for your tenacity as that example is one I have had to adopt to be on a path where I can eventually achieve results. I am also a perfectionist in what I am trying to achieve with my body but am on the beginning of my journey in weight loss but not in the basic biology of the practice. I have only been overweight for a few years but before when I was 10 years younger and in my 20s I could just torture myself without any real plan and lose the weight after building muscle lifting weights, typical bodybuilding but I would still take it to far and then have adrenal problems. Now that I have eliminated gluten and grains my gut has healed which is a first step but now with my 3rd attempt at going very low carb I have hit a wall at the same point I did last time at 14 days in and am getting enough sodium although one or two days I may have had a bit less for a total of 3 grams but am really trying to keep it at 5. I ran out of blood ketone strips and so have not checked this two week cycle but like last time when I never got above .4 with 20 grams carbs or less with 75 percent fat (I am currently upping it) I suspect this time I am also having trouble reaching a suffient level of ketosis to sustain energy as I actually was bonking when I woke today and did a few days ago too but extra sodium seemed to help then but there is not way I can still need sodium so I had a kiwi for breakfast and then a few ounces of berries which got me to quit passing out. Even after this horrible second week of bonking from lacking ketones, I am not ready to quit but may add in more berries to reach at least 50 grams a day for the next few days. Extremely frustrating when I know I am doing things right enough to be rewarded with some fat burning/ketone action but my fat is some stubborn stuff at age 37 now, do you have any suggestions?

  16. Peter,
    Thanks for your insights, I’ve found them very helpful and enjoyable. I don’t know if you’ve covered this elsewhere, but what are your thoughts on the consumption of alcohol (wine) with a meal regarding and its resultant suppression of glucose?
    When I measure my blood glucose after drinking a glass of wine with a meal, I see a significantly lower glucose response, so I’d expect to see a lower insulin response.

  17. Peter,
    I have not visited your site in quite a while and been catching up. I have been following you since the beginning. I was surprised that you are considering auto racing. Makes perfect sense. I wanted to give you a warning..Its very difficult to quit once you start. I starting racing late in life about 17 years ago..It started out with just fun weekends with other guys my age. 43 at the time. It slowly morphed into more intense racing. Starting with Skip Barber, then Barber Dodge Pro cars, Star Mazda,GT cars, Daytona Prototypes, and then LMP2 including Le Mans this year. This is one of the reasons I started following you. I needed a nutrition strategy for car racing. I needed to be lean, light and have plenty of mental and physical energy The car has to be a minimum weight, but not the driver, so 10-20 pounds is “free” total weight reduction.. I went from 175 to 155. 6 feet tall so very lean. I started as a high carb, gel eating and sports drink drinking race driver and morphed into a low carb ketogenic athlete. My energy levels and focus(important driving 200 mph) were good stint after stint. I am 60 now and have pulled back from racing at that level anyway.. I am taking some time off to think about further racing. I just wanted to let you know how addictive it is and hard to stop.;-) I never intended to go this that far with racing. Just a warning.The sim is great too. ..Good guys at IRacing and really usefull. If I can be of any help in your pursuit in auto racing please let my know. I have track notes and a lot of in car videos that might help.If I can be of any help please let me know. Its the least I can do you all the help and insights I have received from reading your blog and listening to your interviews. Sorry. Off topic, but had to say it. From what I know of you, you would be a great race car driver.Thanks again for all you do

  18. Hi Peter,

    Hope things are going well.
    I read 3 recent studies about cancer, I think you will find them interesting! They are connected and say that lactic acid protects cancer from glucose restriction and helps it survive when glucose is low. So at first cancers exhibit Warburg effect to build up lactic acid, then it protects the cancer, and the cancer switches to non-glycolitic metabolism. However, if you deal with lactic acidosis (they did bicarbonate (baking soda) infusion into tumor), then cancer becomes much more sensitive to glucose deprivation and it worked great on humans with liver cancer tumors.
    The 3rd study below on humans with liver cancer showed that combined TACE(blocking nutrients to cancer) + Bicarbonate reduced tumor volume 6 times more compared to just TACE. And patients had 100% objective response rate to the combined therapy, while TACE had 40-60% response rate. From that I think ketosis/fasting could be combined with sodium bicarbonate infusion (or other means to deal with lactic acidosis) for great results.

    Here are the studies:
    1. – Central role of lactic acidosis in cancer cell resistance to glucose deprivation-induced cell death — The ability of cancer cells to resist glucose deprivation-induced cell death is conferred, at least in part, by lactic acidosis, and we envision that disrupting the lactic acidosis may resume the sensitivity of cancer cells to glucose deprivation.

    2. – Beyond Warburg effect – dual metabolic nature of cancer cells — When cancer cells are under regular culture condition, they show Warburg effect; whereas under lactic acidosis, they show a nonglycolytic phenotype, characterized by a high ratio of oxygen consumption rate over glycolytic rate, negligible lactate production and efficient incorporation of glucose carbon(s) into cellular mass. These two metabolic modes are intimately interrelated, for Warburg effect generates lactic acidosis that promotes a transition to a nonglycolytic mode. This dual metabolic nature confers growth advantage to cancer cells adapting to ever changing microenvironment.

    3. – Previous works suggested that neutralizing intratumoral lactic acidosis combined with glucose deprivation may deliver an effective approach to control tumor. Bicarbonate markedly enhances the anticancer activity of TACE (TACE is transarterial chemoembalization, i.e. procedure to restrict tumor blood supply, presumably for glucose restriction).

    What are your thoughts on this? I feel like lactic acidosis is not getting a lot of attention in cancer research, but maybe it is the missing piece of the puzzle.


  19. What do you think is the optimal dose of cardio exercise to promote longevity? In one of the Tim Ferris podcasts you mention a Copenhagen study that concludes running slow-moderately 3x a week with a total of 1 to 2.4h is optimal in terms of longevity. Other studies imply you should run 7-8h per week including running hard some of the time.

    What would you recommend?

  20. Dr. Attia, I am 69, 68″, and mildly overweight ( 36″ waist) but eat a high fat, high protein diet and avoid carbs. I am having trouble losing weight and wonder if i should just reduce portions, or fundamentally change diets to only low fat, low carb food limiting intake to less than 1200 calories per day unitl I drop the weight. I have an unusual ability to gain strength rapidly as at age 62 began lifting for the first time in my life, and at age 64, could bench 315 5 reps. I think you know my son Matt.

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