Understanding science #143 – John Ioannidis, M.D., D.Sc.: Why most biomedical research is flawed, and how to improve it “We need to defend our method. We need to defend our principles. We need to defend the honesty of science in trying to communicate it rather than building exaggerated promises or narratives that are not realistic.” —John Ioannidis Understanding science Studying Studies: Part IV – randomization and confounding Randomization helps us in our quest to not fool ourselves. Confounding? Not so much. Understanding science Studying Studies: Part III – the motivation for observational studies If randomized-controlled trials are considered the gold standard for establishing reliable knowledge, why do we see so many observational studies in public health?